If your neighbor has a fence, a structure or a new addition to his home that crosses your property line, this could end up becoming a boundary dispute . She has not maintained that strip of land nor used it since. This material is made available on the Internet by the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission as a public service under KRS 7. 042 Action to require construction or replacement of a farm boundary line fence -- Apportionment of cost -- Enforcement of lien. California law is pretty straightforward when it comes to responsibility for fences between adjoining neighbors. 6. Dec 06, 2019 · Most fencing laws limit the height of artificial fences in residential areas to four feet in front yards and six feet in backyards. 1 RESTRICTIONS ON RE-SUBMITTALS OF ZONING MAP AMENDMENTS . Also while I was in Germany 5 years  If you practice fence etiquette, bone-up on local zoning regulations, and follow these good neighbor fence guidelines, you can avoid Observe boundaries: Don't risk having to tear down that fence by going even one inch over your p A building or structure, except an enclosing fence, shall be set back at least fifty. In most cases, a fence on your own property that is close to the boundary line is still subject to fence laws. Jun 09, 2017 · Establishing the Property Line Before proceeding, you need to know the exact location of the property line. Otherwise, the surveyor must follow the explicit instructions contained in the deed while Jan 12, 2021 · We know the prevailing laws and can help guide you to a resolution. 042, each party shall keep a lawful fence on his portion of the line. If the fence is on the property line, both parties are equally responsible for its upkeep. In some instances, unambiguous markers from an earlier survey establish that. U When you own a piece of property, it's common to think that no one can tell you what to do with any part of it. 3780. Search Kentucky Revised Statutes. 030 Adjoining owners to maintain fence -- Liability for trespassing cattle. There’s an old saying, “Good fences make good neighbors. The limbs would hang over onto our property & lay on our cedar fence causing damage. Oct 15, 2008 · Perhaps his fence is two feet over the property line, or the dying limb of his sugar maple is overhanging your How to deal with neighbors that encroach on your property Personal Finance In addition to legal property lines, some local building codes or covenants specify setbacks, materials and height requirements for property fencing. The requirement to share in the construction and maintenance of a line fence has an element of the fencing-out rule. The zoning regulations and Kentucky Revised Stat 3 Jul 2006 What is the law regarding branches of trees overhanging property lines? That said, in KY, anything that crosses the boundary line is owned by that particular property owner, and he may do Why did the diagonal back n Posting correct Kentucky swimming pool signs help to keep your pool area safe for all types of swimmers. Individuals may be required to erect it a specified number of inches or even feet away from the actual property line. 3. These fences give the owner a way of separating property lines while providing privacy in the owner's back yard. (This information can typically be found on a recorded plat from your This is called an "agreed boundary. . The more recent survey is a more accurate locator of the property line. (1) When a division fence exists by agreement, acquiescence or compulsion, under this section or KRS 256. Are you a legal professional? Visit our professional s Knowing your property lines is essential to being a smart homeowner. Title to property is usually transferred by means of a d 30 Oct 2014 Real Estate Law Blog. (a) A strong and sound fence, four (4) feet high, so close that cattle cannot creep through, made of rails, or plank, or wire and plank, or iron, or hedge, or stone or brick. . As such, unless you are rightful co-owner of fence, taking it down without permission could result in being sued, and destroying it could result in arrest. Nov 27, 2017 · Property Line and Fence Laws in Kentucky: First Steps A property dispute can begin with See full list on roarkfencing. In that instance, the tree owner would be required to remove the offending tree. The same can be true when a neighbor is putting up a fence that may encroach on your property. Tape When we purchased our farm 20 years ago we were told the property line was this fence that is on the to be able to completely answer that question better have passed the bar exam in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. This is because under the law in BC, a person found inside enclosed land without the consent of the owner, lessee or occupier is a trespasser. In most cases, you'll need to hire a legally registered surveyor to establish and mark the actual property line. Mar 28, 2017 · Typically, when an existing boundary, usually in the form of a fence, has been in place for 15 or more years and was treated by both landowners as the property line and new boundary line may be established. The Line Fence Law clarifies that these types of fences are not subject to the law: 1. Property line disputes are common, and the law regarding these issues varies by state. Minnesota and Wisconsin partition fence laws: “Fence viewers” don’t decide boundary disputes A partition fence is a fence on the boundary line between two properties that is used by both Mar 31, 2014 · For fences over four-feet, the fence must set back at least five feet from the property line for each additional foot. In addition, some laws address where you can place fences on property lines and what to do if a neighbor disputes a fence on a boundary line. Here is what you need to know about fence&n Fences should not exceed six feet in height in residential areas and the finished side must face out. “I’m 67 years old. 6 Sep 2013 A recent Kentucky Court of Appeals opinion dealing with a dispute between neighbors over a shared The driveway was located on Hines' property, but Baker had the legal right–called an easement–to traverse it for acce 29 Jul 2003 In the next four paragraphs we will examine two relevant statutes as a background to understanding the case law that has evolved concerning fence and boundary lines. If one neighbor's foliage crosses the fence, Georgia law allows the other neighbor to cut off the foliage that line fence law is an exception to the basic rule of fencing-in. Jan 23, 2018 · If you find yourself in a disagreement with a neighbor, this review of Tennessee property line and fence law may help guide you toward a resolution. Dec 23, 2019 · There are also laws against how high the fence can be and in some instances, the fence can’t be built directly on the property line. Jun 14, 2019 · Fence Laws in the State of Colorado. A landowner is compelled to help build and maintain lawful line fences, even if il is only to keep his neighbor's livestock from trespassing. Rusty W. Even then, the fence may be in the wrong place. 042 shall be cited as the Kentucky Boundary Line Fence Act. Home House & Components Every editorial product is independently selected, though we may be co The fact that your neighbors are not actively "using" the portion of your land behind their fence would not stop them from asserting an ownership claim based on adverse possession. Garden fence law – which fence is mine? Most likely, due to the precedent-based legal system in the UK, there isn’t a strict law regarding the boundary between two properties, be it a fence or a hedge, in terms of whose responsibility it is to install, repair or maintain it. Are you a legal professional? FindLaw's legal overview of Oregon's property line and fence laws. Locating your property line is essential in keeping your property separate from your neighbor's. 500 . See Kentucky Statutes 256. A permit is required for a shed, pool and fence. Kentucky Fence Law, Cynthiana. 24 13 Apr 2017 Lexington, KY. 2. Have heard that there is a law that if a fence is up for 7 years that it does become the property line. If one party fails to do so, the person failing shall be liable for all the damages to trees, grass, grain, crops, livestock or land the other party may sustain from the trespassing of livestock over the division fence at the point at which the party failing was bound to keep in repair. 010 Definitions. A boundary tree is one planted on the boundary line itself and should not be removed without mutual agreement. Cities or property owner associations will often try to regulate things such as fence height but for disputes involving ownership or maintenance, those will often need to be settled in court if the neighbors cannot come to an agreement on their own. " Certain requirements must be met: the line must be uncertain, both neighbors must agree that the fence is the line, and then both neighbors must treat the fence as the property boundary for a period of time. The property owner has not used the land on the other side of the fence for years. 080 Liability when cattle enter through lawful fence; lien on cattle If any cattle enter into any land over or through a lawful fence, the owner or manager of the cattle shall for the first trespass be liable to the owner or occupant of that land for such damages Kentucky easement laws on property boundaries and lines for both real property and land. Rumley Staff Attorney National Agricultural Law Center All 50 states have enacted statutes that address issues of livestock running at large and the fences that may or may not be required to keep them confined. of 1846 > Chapter 13 - Of Counties; Missouri; Missouri Laws > Chapter 272 - Fences and Enclosures Fence Law correctly by its interpretation of the statute. States’ “Fence Law” Statutes. Most courts would recognize that you are flouting the law if you build a 20-foot high fence just inches (or even a few feet) from the boundary line. Two years ago, my neighbor built a 6’ chain-link fence, 3 feet from the property line into her property. 045 Short title. Unless you have a written agreement with your neighbor your allocated fence line is the actual property line between your home and theirs. Law: Fences, Trees, Boundaries & Noise, by Cora Jordan and Emily Doskow (Nolo). ” We have not built nor planted anything on that strip of land. 9-2. Site Plan which includes dimensions of lot, easements, measurements and dimensions of structures on the lot and their distance to the property lines, as well as proposed Fencing/Wall. ( 50) feet from any property line. This is also beneficial in case of liability disputes regarding trees, fences or old buildings causing damage on you or your neighbor's land. 4 Location and Height of Accessory Buildings. Although the fence owner may not be able to hold the objecting property owner responsible for maintenance or other costs associated with the fence, the property owner is at risk for losing his property rights. Most of us don't have the pleasure of country living, so state fence laws don't affect us directly. com In residential form districts (TNFD, NFD, VFD), barbed wire fencing located less than six feet above grade level is permissible only when used to enclose livestock. Fences cannot obscure a motorist or pedestrian view of an intersection, a property line from the street or a driveway edge. This could be a constructive way to ensure that everyone is aware of, understands, and agrees to firm boundaries. These “fence law” statutes can vary widely from state to state. The Kentucky Fence Law is outdated and needs to be re-written - hopefully in the 2016 General Session of the Kentucky Legislature. Some cities or counties stipulate that a fence m ust be 2, 4, 6, or 8 inches away from the property line. If there are questions or issues as to the actual boundary line, it may be wise to retain a surveyor to properly mark the property boundaries in Apr 13, 2020 · The main rule of thumb for homeowners to follow when there is an easement on the property line is to avoid building anything, including fences, on said easements. Lastly you should play it safe and put the fence several feet inside your property line. A permit is usually required. 220 (1)(b)(2)(b)] changes the filing requirements for tangible personal property tax returns. S. Frankfort, KY (Jan. Others will let homeowners build directly on the property line. (F) "Preferred partition fence" means a partition fence that is a woven wire fence, either standard or high tensile, with one or two We’re located in California. Electrified, razor wire and barbed wire fences are not allowed in residential urban or suburban settings, but are permitted in many rural areas. However, if everyone had in the past for at least 10 years treated the fence line as the property line, she might be able to argue that she owns all the land on her side up to the fence. 2006 Kentucky Revised Statutes - CHAPTER 256 FENCES. 3 Conversion of Dwellings. In some states, a legal barbed wire fence must be at least 36 inches high, while others call for minimum heights for the property. All fences applicable codes & Zoning ordinance. Website: http://www. Jan 21, 2020 · Over the Line: Misplaced fences, roads and other boundary disputes. Building a fence on an easement is risky, because the property owner may be ordered to take it down, or find it destroyed by a public utility that has easement access to the property. Louisville-Jefferson County 601 West Jefferson St Suite 215 Louisville, Kentucky 40202 Disclaimer: This Code of Ordinances and/or any other documents that appear on this site may not reflect the most current legislation adopted by the Municipality. Knowing the location of your property lines is crucial when determining where to erect new structures, such as a fence or poo 12 Sep 2016 Pursuant to the authority of Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS Chapter 100) it is hereby ordained and enacted into law commodities, and the loss of life, health or property from fire, flood or other dangers. Aside from losing your land, the reduced size might affect your setback requirements and impact on your planned future improvements. 020 Agreement for division fence -- Effect. Learn the best way to find your property lines without digging up your yard. There also may be issues with a tree on property line fence, like overhanging branches. 9. Kentucky Statutes > Chapter 256 - Fences; Massachusetts; Massachusetts General Laws > Chapter 49 - Fences, Fence Viewers, Pounds and Field Drivers; Michigan; Michigan Laws > Chapter 43 - Fences and Fence Viewers; Michigan Laws > Chapter 45 > R. App. R. You can put in a pool with an entertainment deck. Sometimes even a hedge can act as a boundary. If you can't figure it out from the property descriptions in your deed or subdivision map, or you and the neighbor think it is in different places, you have several choices. Chumbley, who bought his property in 1977, said he would not have purchased the land if he had known about the law. Plaintiffs argued as the fence was built on the property line and the defendant owned adjoining property, the obligation to share in the cost of erecting and maintaining the fence was settled. Dimension dra 1 Aug 2019 Knowing and following your area's fence regulations, as well as practicing neighbor etiquette are key to a successful fence installment and avoiding any future fence disputes. Keg Law - It is unlawful for the owner or occupant of property to allow another person under age 21 to remain on the property while 24 Jan 2018 These regulations are adopted under the authority granted in Kentucky Revised Statutes. However, trees and shrubs should be planted a minimum of five (5) feet away from the property line to ensure maintenance access and to avoid encroachment on neighboring property. (Ky. Practically speaking, if your fence is six inches inside your property line, it may be difficul State laws. When permitted, or not prohibited, by local ordinances, fences can be built right on the property line. 10 Computation of residents of the City of Franklin and Simpson County, Kentucky and of further accomplishing the 2. 3 Jun 2002 Building inspectors and angry neighbors can force the adjustment or removal of a fence if it violates easements or property lines. A survey may reveal that an existing “boundary” fence really doesn't stand on the prope 21 Apr 2009 helping to pay for a boundary fence. An approved plot plan which includes distances to property lines from the proposed structure. About your property boundaries, working out your boundary lines, boundaries and neighbour disputes, agreeing who's responsible for walls and fences A property line is a legal boundary line that defines your property and separates it from your neighbor’s. Quick Look: Tennessee Property Line and Fence Laws This chart provides a summary of key Tennessee laws relevant to property line and fence disputes. May 12, 2017 · If you set a fence inside your property line and your neighbor is able to use the property outside of the line, that portion of your property may fall under prescriptive easement. Old Fence Line. ) Chapter 100. Apparently it is fine at the back of my garden but veers into next door's land at the front of my house. Dec 17, 2020 · Learn your rights and responsibilities with Neighbor Law, the plain-English guide to the laws behind common neighbor disputes. Sep 28, 2018 · Under Indiana law, adjoining landowners who agree to erect a fence and treat that as the boundary between their properties are estopped from later denying that the fence line is the legal boundary. Placing a fence right on your property line has the potential for it to turn into what’s called a “division fence. Landowners need to be aware of these special situations and of which fence law is in place in counties where they own land. ordinance and through subsequent amendments to the written text and the official zoning map. Is the problem serious? What should I do if the neighbor refuse to move the fence back? Fence viewers do not determine exactly where on or near a property line a partition fence should be located. Are you a legal professional? Visit our professional site » Create Property lines aren't usually visible unless you or your neighbor has a fence. Phone: 859-258-. Fences that adjoin residentially used or zoned property in any form district may include barbed wire or razor wire only if reviewed and approved by the Planning Director or designee. a longstanding property line? Must the farmer just give up that land? Farmers have options to resolve this type of boundary dispute in their favor. The heavily litigated cases in Colorado that are involve disputes about fences, the number one complaint is encroachment over property lines. 010 Dec 23, 2018 · Kentucky’s fence law requires the cost of construction or replacement of a farm boundary-line fence to be shared by neighboring landowners. Advice on how to handle and settle boundary line disputes. Shortly thereafter she stated that she “gave us extra space for our kids to play. This simplifies the process. However, if you can't or didn't get that information, there are several ways to attempt to locate it yours FindLaw's legal overview of Ohio's property line and fence laws, including rules for maintaining trees. 042 provides that “[t]he District Court shall have exclusive jurisdiction over all actions arising under this section or KRS 256. Article IX General Regulations. When a proposed use adjoins an undeveloped parcel of&nb Regulations of this ordinance, or subsequent amendment of this ordinance, may be All public swimming pools must comply with all applicable Kentucky State Where a zoning district boundary approximately follows a lot or property lin Fences & Swimming Pools. Privacy fences are a necessary barrier between you and your neighbors. If you or your neighbor want to fence the property or build a structure close to the line, you need to know where the boundary line actually runs. Exceptions are boundary fences - see "Property Line (Boundary ) Fences," below - or spite fences erected to annoy the nei 15 Oct 2019 Use or Sale of Land or Buildings in Conformance with Zoning Regulations . Popular Tools Download the 311 mobile app and report something to us Order garbage & recycling carts/bins Get an accident report Report a property maintenance issue Get a permit, license or application Pay a parking ticket online City planning and zoning Pay your water/sewer bill Pay your electric/gas bill Bid on surplus items Get a special The certified versions of the Kentucky Revised Statutes should be consulted for all matters requiring reliance on the statutory text. 1 Application of Zone and District Regulations. Fence property laws are subject to state and municipal jurisdiction and are published through the city and municipal ordinances as well as by Missouri has two fence laws: the general fence law (updated Aug. The Line Fences Act never mentions livestock! "Partition fence" includes a fence that has been considered a division line between two such properties even though a subsequent land survey indicates that the fence is not located directly on the division line. In interpreting the statute, the appellate Court first considered the plain meaning of the statute. commodities, and the loss of life, health, or property from fire, flood or other dangers. 28, 2001) and the local option fence law. 1. We recommend using Google Chrome, Firefox, or Microsoft Edge. A property line is a legal boundary line that defines your property and separates it from your neighbor’s. For example, if your neighbor’s fence was installed on your property, the encroaching fence line may result in reducing the size of your property. Find a Real Estate Attorney in KY to help settle real property and land disputes. ” (Emphasis added). Wood fencing laws are meant to protect the homeowner. The builder has proposed straightening the fence so it is on the property line. Is the 5 inches crossing tolerable? My friend told me that my neighbor should move the fence back , otherwise I will have a problem to sell my house in the future. The Kentucky Boundary Line Fence Act consists of two substantive statutes, KRS 256. Local ordinances set by cities and counties, and sometimes subdivision rules called Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CC&Rs), regulate fencing. Each new section general welfare of the county, and to protect existing agricultural and residential land uses by empowering it to regula the Kentucky Administrative Regulations together with any amendments as from time to time property maintenance code of the city for the control of buildings and structures as (4) Postponement or continuance ofa zoning map amendme Am I required to get a permit for a shed, pool, or a fence? Yes. ” While that may be true normally, sometimes a neighbor’s fence is out of place and on your side of the property line. distance to the property lines, as well as proposed Fencin the prior Official Zoning Map, original Zoning Regulations or any subsequent amendment thereof. conceptual 7 Dec 2018 There are different types of boundary disputes, and different approaches to solving them. If you do need a permit, submit information to the local zoning department that details your property line, the location of the fence you plan to build and what materials you plan to use. gov. Permits are required for all fences greater than 7 ft in height and in ground swimming pools. Once you know the local building code, you will know if you need to get a permit to build a fence. Internet Explorer 11 is no longer supported. Once these requirements are fulfilled, the fence becomes the legal boundary line on the ground. Dec 17, 2020 · Texas does not have a specific state law that addresses boundary line fences. Jurisdiction over claims arising under Boundary Line Fence Act is vested exclusively in District Court. A boundary fence is a fence that is located on or near a property line, though the exact definition can vary by state. The zoning . Consult your local building department to insure compliance with all regulations and laws. (1)  Persons owning adjoining lands may agree to erect division fences between them and keep them in repair. You can build your kids the play area of When you move into a new home, one of the most important questions you can ask the previous owner is where the sewer line is located. You and your neighbor may disagree as to where you should place a fence, whether a tree falls on your property or your neighbor’s property or simply where your neighbor should be allowed to plant their vegetable garden. Neighbor Law is more than a legal guide—it’s a practical book filled with tips on how to solve problems and restore good neighbor relations. 030 and 256. Otherwise, the surveyor must follow the explicit instructions contained in the deed while ignoring the fence, unless the fence is the only remaining evidence of the boundary. Apr 13, 2017 · Fences/Walls. Property Line Dispute In Kentucky. While section 3 of the Line Fences Act gives property owners the right to build and maintain line fences, it does not force property owners to build line fences to mark their boundaries. Each individual, partnership, or corporation that has taxable personal property must file return Form 62A500 between January 1 and May 15 with their local Property If the subject deed contains such language as “thence with a fence”, “along a fence” or “following a fence” then it is a safe bet that the fence is the property line if the fence in question is the original fence called for in the conveyance. My neighbor built a fence that crossed the property line about 5 inches in my backyard. Building directly on the property line can cause issues and disputes. It is my understanding that in the state of Kentucky I can use stat An ordinance of the City hereby establishes comprehensive zoning regulations and provides for the administration, streets, or between a street and a right-of- way of a dead-end street or city boundary, measured along the street line. In addition, Missouri law addresses special situations of property bordering a road, a railroad, or a body of water. 042 , each party shall keep a lawful fence on his portion of the line. Jun 08, 2009 · The owner of a parcel of real estate used for agricultural purposes may file an action in the District Court to require the initial construction or replacement of a boundary line fence or any portion thereof on the boundary between any parcel of real estate adjacent to the real estate of the plaintiff. (K. 256. Jul 15, 2014 · Property line disputes can occur for a few reasons. By Brian Farkas A few years ago, my neighbors built a woode When considering a new landscaping project it can be difficult to pinpoint exactly where the property line is between you and your neighbor. Further, fence viewers do not have authority under fence law to fix disputed boundary lines between properties involved in a fence viewing proceeding. At our old house, our neighbor behind us who we had never officially met, had a row of trees that were barely onto his property line that he did not maintain. Check the home's property boundaries, and if there is uncertainty, city and county clerk Items 1 - 10 SECTION 14. Section 841 of the Civil Code — also known as the Good Neighbor Fence Act of 2013 — states: treated the fence as the property line, but a recent survey shows that the fence is not exactly on the property line. com Kentucky Boundary Fence Laws A boundary fence is a fence that is located on or near a property line, though the exact definition can vary by state. Page 2. 040 Repealed, 1988. 030. The new law states that such a fence is subject to the Line Fence Law. The permit cost is to install a fence? The City does not require property owners to have a survey done although; it is a GENERAL ZONING DISTRICT REGULATIONS. 121 likes. To learn more about boundary fences, including how they are defined, when a neighbor is allowed to build a boundary fence, and who is responsible for repairs and maintenance, see Oct 19, 2013 · A new house is being built next door and a survey has found that the property line is not consistent with the fence line between the properties. You can paint it any color you want. They also keep potential burglars away from your home and property. Id. 042. 2006). 8. Under Georgia law, it is the responsibility of both property owners to ensure that they install fences on their side of the property line. 0302 provides: (1) When a division fence exists by agreement, acquiescence or compulsion, under this section or KRS 256. Legally, this is a type of property easement that is earned by regular use of the property. 8, 2020) - Effective January 1, 2020, a new state law [KRS 132. KRS 256. Cooperation and diplomacy, however, are often the best solutions, no matter which side of the fence or property line you're on. 030 and KRS 256. 40507. We live in the county in a small town in Kentucky. Campbell County Zoning Ordinance. Jun 23, 2020 · Line fences mark the boundary between abutting properties. Boundary by acquiescence does not require a property line to be the actual boundary and the court can make the fence line the new property line. Aug 18, 2016 · There can be county ordinances, town ordinances, and neighborhood rules which you may have to comply with in order to put up a fence. Information Required to Review a Residential Remodeling Permit: a. The Fences Amendment Act 2014 has one process for all fencing works and subsidiary works, whether those works involve construction of a new dividing fence or repair of an existing dividing fence. This guide answers common questions about these Sep 05, 2018 · If a tree owner allows the tree to grow so that it uproots a fence, it would be considered an encroachment onto the adjacent property. Fences between lands laid out in lots under Ohio subdivision law. California Laws on Property Lines and Fences. Find out how to handle: noisy neighbors; trees that hang over a property line Oct 30, 2003 · First, the law contemplates that the fence might not be exactly on the boundary line. Tree branches are an issue that most people don’t consider after they’ve erected a fence. If the subject deed contains such language as “thence with a fence”, “along a fence” or “following a fence” then it is a safe bet that the fence is the property line if the fence in question is the original fence called for in the conveyance. lexin gtonky. Even if it was trespass, there is in law the concept that some wrongs are so minor that the law will not Apr 28, 2009 · Our neighbor refused to let us cut down a "nuisance" tree that is directly on our property line. 045. Jan 06, 2016 · Under state law, it is the legal responsibility of both property owners to ensure that their property lines follow the actual demarcations expressly stated in their respective deeds and legal papers. Re: Legal Survey vs. Apr 15, 2017 · If your government offices don’t have a survey, you will need to pay to have one done to make sure you are placing the fence on your property and not your neighbor’s! Get the proper permits. Dec 17, 2018 · Cities and counties in the state of Tennessee have established a number of zoning laws to regulate the height of fences and the materials that can be used. 2 Yard Requirements Along Less Restricted Zone Boundary Line. Make sure you're on solid ground Property Survey, Real Estate Law. 3770. Jul 25, 2018 · So, let’s get started by looking into the current British garden fence legislation. While your neighbor would not gain a legal title to the land or be able to sell it, they may be able to claim a legal right to use the property. In Illinois, most property FindLaw's legal overview of the property line and fence laws of Massachusetts. Fax: 859-258-. If one party fails to do so, the person See full list on brewerfirm.